Birgitta Hoffmann

The Incense Roads are a set of maritime and overland roads that serve the Arab peninsula and link the countries on the Persian Gulf and the Indian Ocean with the Eastern Mediterranean harbours and Syria. Named after their most famous trade good: Frankincense. They remained in use from the Bronze Age to well into the Middle Ages.


28 April: King Solomo and the Queen of Sheba – the early evidence for the frankincense trade.
5 May:  The Nabataeans I – between the Mediterranean and the Red Sea.
12 May:  The Nabataeans II – trade far beyond Petra
19 May: Rome, Sinai and Eilat – the other side of the Red Sea Trade.
26 May: When Yemen and Ethiopia became Jewish. Trade at the Bab el-Mandab in the Byzantine period.
2 June:  Between land and sea: the Arab traders and pilgrims from the 6th to the 12th century CE.
9 June:  The role of Aden and the Bab el-Mandab in the Middle ages and the early modern period

Day: Thursdays        Time: 2-4 pm GMT

7 weeks starting 28 April 2022. 

Virtual Learning Environment: Zoom

Single lecture:

Price Concessions Minimum No. Maximum No.
£10 1 50

Bookings for all lectures

Price Concessions Minimum No. Maximum No.
£65 1 50

To book, complete the MANCENT booking form and send it with payment to the address below. Alternatively, you can book via Eventbrite.

Birgitta Hoffmann
55 Broadwalk, Wilmslow, Cheshire, SK9 5PL
email: mobile: 07747 533 070


Adult Education in Manchester and Cheshire